The Family of Francis Gaume
Then, we come to the family of my ggg-grandfather, Francis Gaume, Sr., as it appeared in the US Census of 1850. Most of what I learned at first regarding Francis Gaume, Sr. came primarily from his appearance in the US census records for 1850 and 1860 where he is listed with his wife and children. According to the census records, he was born about 1809 and he married Elizabeth Faiver (Faivre) around 1835. He does not appear in the US Census of 1870 where his wife, Elise, appears living alone with her granddaughter, Delah (my g-grandmother).
It is likely that Francis, Sr. died sometime in the 1860′s. I did find a record in St. Louis Catholic Church in Louisville of a Francis Gaume buried in 1868 however there is no age given in the record and I learned later that this Francis died in infancy and is buried in St. Louis Cemetery in Louisville.
The French Connection
After examining the census records and obituaries from the Louisville Herald, our focus turned toward the locale of eastern France. A great breakthrough came about when my father’s cousin discovered the family in the civil records of Montecheroux, France. As it turns out Francis Gaume & Louis Gaume were brothers. Their parents were Luc Francois Jeanin-Gaume and Marie Therese Pequignot. Not only that, but we also learned that their wives, Elise Faiver and Josephine Faiver were sisters – daughters of Joseph Faiver and Jeanne Angelique Voisard.
The family of Luc Francois Jeanin-Gaume (gggg-grandfather) appears in a number of civil records in the village Montecheroux beginning with the birth of his eldest daughter in 1803. Luc Francois was the son of Jean Claude Jeanin-Gaume who was born circa 1750 in Mambouhans, Doubs, France and Marie Agnes Nedey, daughter of Pierre Francois Nedey and Catherine Berne. She was born in January, 1744 in Mambouhans, Doubs, France. Jean Claude was the son of Pierre Francois Jeanin-Gaume. Jean Claude died on July 14, 1813 in France.
The name Jeanin is very common in Franche-Comte, in Burgundy, and Bern, Switzerland. The name Gaume is rare and may be German, Austrian, or Swiss in origin. It is likely that the Jeanin-Gaume family originated in Switzerland. In 1772, the town of Montecheroux was in the Principality of Montebiliard, a possession of the Duchy of Wurtemburg. In 1793, French revolutionary forces invaded and "liberated" Montebiliard. In 1801, Napoleon officially annexed Montebiliard to France through the Treaty of Lunville.
The Siblings of Luc Francois Gaume
Besides Luc Francois, Jean Claude & Marie Agnes Jeanin-Gaume had at least four other children that we know of: Marie Josephe, Jean Nicolas, Sebastian, and Pierre Francois.
Marie Josephe Jeanin-Gaume was born on January 28, 1776 in France. She married Jacques Ferry on January 29, 1813 in Damblin, Doubs, France. She died on December 11, 1839 in Mambouhans, Doubs, France, at age 63.
Jean Nicolas Jeanin-Gaume was also known as Jean Nicholas Francois Gaume. We have conflicting birthdates for Jean Nicolas. One compilation gives his origin as born in March 1778 in Ecot, Doubs, France, and second says that he was born on August 3, 1778 in Maubois (Mambouhans), Doubs, France. There is also conflicting information regarding his marriage. One compilation has that he married Marie Généreuse Cantin, daughter of Claude Francois Cantin and Jeanne Claude Prieur, on December 29, 1800 in Goux-les-Dambelin, Doubs, France and the other has that he married Marie Josèphe Cantin, daughter of Francois Joseph Cantin and Marguerite Metot, on January 10, 1810 in Mambouhans, Doubs, France. We do know for certain that he died in 1844 in Linn, Osage Co., Missouri. With this, we find that a branch of the Gaume family of Montecheroux settled in Missouri rather than Ohio and it appears Jean Nicolas, his brother Sebastian, and brother-in-law Jacques Ferry, including their families, migrated to Missouri shortly after the brothers Francis, Sr. and Louis migrated to Ohio. This would have to have been after the death of Marie Josephe Jeanin-Gaume in 1839.
Jacques Ferry, husband of Marie Josephe Jeanin-Gaume, is buried in Perrey-St. Isidor Cemetery, Linn, Osage Co., Missouri. He was farmer & sabotier (a maker of wooden shoes). He appeared on the census of 1850 in Linn, Osage Co., Missouri. He died in January 1863 in Linn, Osage Co., Missouri, at age 81.
Sebastian Gaume was born in 1788 in France. He married Mary ___ say 1830 in France. He appeared on the census of 1850 in the household of Sophia, his daughter, and John Maraine, son-in-law, in Linn, Osage Co., Missouri. He died before 1860 in Missouri.
Luc Francois Jeanin-Gaume
Luc Francois Jeanin-Gaume was born on March 26, 1774 in France. We know that he received the Sainte-Helene medal, awarded to all surviving veterans of the Napoleonic wars by Emperor Napoleon III in 1857 and that he had been a soldier in the 20th Demi-Brigade Légère or light infantry regiment (20e DBdeLé). From the Sainte-Helene’s Medal Database we find:
nom: GAUME – prenom: Lucien François – commune: Montéchéroux – departement: Doubs (25) – grade: soldat – regiment: 20e 1/2 brigade – dossier: 32732
The Sainte Helene’s medal, created in 1857 by Napoleon III, rewarded the 390,000 soldiers still living in at the time, who had fought with Napoleon I during the 1792-1815 wars. All of the decorated soldiers were born around 1765-1797 and were still living in 1857. All of them belonged to the French army between the years 1792-1815. In total 405,000 soldiers were decorated between 1857 and 1870 – 350,000 French soldiers and 55,000 foreign soldiers.
Luc Francois was born 1774 in Mambouhans, Doubs and died March 03, 1860 in Montecheroux, Doubs, France. He was 18 yrs old when France declared war on Austria in 1792. He was 20 yrs old during the Reign Of Terror in 1794. He was 22 yrs old during Napoleon’s 1st Italian Campaign in 1796. He was 24 yrs old during Napoleon’s campaign in Egypt in 1798. He was 26 yrs old during Napoleon’s 2nd Italian Campaign in 1800. He was 28 yrs old when Britain and France signed the peace treaty of Amiens in 1802. He was 28 yrs old when he and Marie Therese Pequignot were married about 1802 (their first child was born in 1803).
Napoleon’s military machine acquired every able-bodied and un-married man not only who were citizens of France, but of surrounding nations under French control including Belgium, and parts of Germany and Switzerland. Therefore, it seems likely that he began military service in 1796. A reference to the 20th demi-brigade (20e DBdeLé) is found in "Correspondence de Napoleon I" (pub. 1853) in a letter from Napoleon to General Berthier dated 11 germinal an IV (31 Mar. 1796) in which he is ordering that 20e DBdeLé exchange places with the 15e DBdeLé at Nice and prepare for the invasion of Italy.
Before 1796 and prior to the revolution (1792), the unit that became the 20e DBdeLé in 1796 and later was incorporated into the 7e Régiment d’Infanterie Légère in 1803 was originally titled the Chasseurs Du Gevaudan (Nr 10). During the French revolutionary period (1792-1803), the term "regiment" was considered politically incorrect because it smacked of royalism and so they were called "half-brigades" instead. The 20e Demi-Brigade was formed in 1796 because of the second amalgamation of Napoleon’s army on 27 February.
In 1796, the French were at war against a coalition of nations lead by the Austrians. Wanting to extend the revolution beyond the borders of France, Napoleon devised a plan to conquer the Piedmont region of Northern Italy and to split off the Piedmontese from the Austrians. Bonaparte went to Nice to take over the weak and poorly supplied Army of Italy on March 2, and immediately prepared for a daring invasion against superior forces. Although his army was badly outnumbered, Napoleon managed to take the Piedmont with a series of bold strikes. Within the first two weeks of the early April invasion, his army broke the backs of the Piedmont armies and on 26 April, Piedmont surrendered. Bonaparte demanded gold and silver, and paid his troops the first real money they had seen in years. "Soldiers," he said, "we thank you."
Turning north, Napoleon continued to pursue the Austrians and through a series of battles, and by the end of the summer his army forced the Austrians and Germans over the Rhine. During this First Italian Campaign, 1796-97, the 20e DBdeLé was distinguished in clashes at Sulzbach where they beat off a charge by the Austrian Calvary (17 Aug 1796) and was present at the Battle of Wurzburg (3 Sep 1796) in Bavaria.
From 1797 and the years following the French were continuously at war against the Austrians and Great Britain. In the spring of 1800, Napoleon executed an even more daring plan than earlier and that was to catch the Austrians by surprise. To do this he took his troops – 40,000 men along with field artillery – over the Alps and through the Great St. Bernard Pass. Not since days of Hannibal had any army attempted such a thing. On the morning of June 14, he faced the Austrians at Marengo outside of Milan. By the end of the day, there were 6,000 French casualties, but nearly twice as many Austrians had been killed or wounded. The French had won. During the Second Italian Campaign the 20e DBdeLé was distinguished in clashes on the Var River [Italy] (22-27 May 1800).
The Second Italian Campaign culminated in the Austrian Emperor suing for peace the following year. In 1802, France and Great Britain also signed a treaty of peace and for the first time in almost ten years Europe was at peace. It is probably in this year that Luc Francois left army, having served his ten-year enlistment. It is probably a good thing that he did leave the army then because the hostilities between Great Britain and France recommenced on May 18, 1803 and the series of wars between France and the coalitions continued almost without break until Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo in 1815.
After serving in Napoleon’s army, Luc Francois Gaume settled down back home in Montecheroux. In 1803, his occupation is listed as mason (maçon). In the birth record of his second child, Marie Julie, in 1809 his occupation is listed as saloonkeeper (cabarretier). From 1813 until his death in 1860, at age 86, his occupation is continually listed as couvreur (roofer?, tiler?).
He married Marie Therese Pequignot in 1803 in Montecheroux, Sainte Hippolyte, Doubs, France. Marie Therese Pequignot was born in 1782 in Doubs, France. Luc Francois and Marie Therese had at least eight children:
Marie Joseph Alexandrine Jeanin-Gaume was born on April 16, 1804. Marie Julie Eugenie Jeanin-Gaume was born on April 4, 1809. Marie Celestine Justine Jeanin-Gaume was born in 1812. She married Constant Prudot on November 28, 1827 in Montecheroux. Louis Gaume (introduced earlier) was born on November 25, 1813. Pierre Felix Jeanin-Gaume was born on August 20, 1818. Alexandire Thomas Jeanin-Gaume was born on January 1, 1823. Virginie Jeanin-Gaume was born on September 10, 1824.
Jean Baptiste Francois Xavier Jeanin-Gaume, my ggg-grandfather, also known as Francis Gaume (Sr.) was born on June 22, 1807. Based on the research that was conducted by my father’s cousin we were able to find in the Montecheroux Civil Records the birth record for Francis Gaume, Sr. which I translated from the Napoleonic Code record:
"In the year 1807 on the 22nd of June, at noon, before us, Pierre Nicolat Miquillet, associate officer of the government of the commune of Montecheroux, Canton of St. Hypolite, Department of Doubs, there appeared Luc François Jeanin-Gom, thirty four years of age, tiler, residing in Montecheroux, which has presented to us a child of the male sex, that was born today at three o’clock in the morning to the declarant and Marie Therese Pequignot his wife, to which he states that he wants to give the first name Jean Baptiste François Xavier. These statements and the presentation were made in the presence of Pierre François Jeannin-Gom, tiler, age twenty eight years, who resides in Maubois (Mambouhans), Department of Doubs, and of Pierre Christophe Schom, laborer, age twenty eight years, who resides in Montecheroux, and we had the father and witnesses sign with us the presentation of birth after a reading of it was made to them."
Luc Francois Jeanin-Gaume (my gggg-grandfather) died on March 3, 1860. His death record also appears in the Montecheroux Civil Records:
"In the year 1860, on the afternoon of the third of March, before us, Jacques Schom, mayor and registrar of the government of the commune of Montecheroux, canton of St Hippolyte, department of Doubs, there appeared in our town hall Joseph Hippolyte Farque, age of 31, son-in-law of the deceased, shoemaker, and Pierre Vienot age of 66, a (friend?) of the deceased, farmer, both residents of Montecheroux, to inform us that Luc Franois Jeanin-Gaume, age of 86 (quatre-vingt six) years, tiler, who resided in Montecheroux had died on the present day at 8 o’clock this morning in Montecheroux. He was born in Mambouhans, son of the late Jean Claude Jannin-Gaume and the late Marie Agns Ndr(?), who spent their lives working and living in Mambouhans. He was married to Therese Pequignot, 78 (soixante dix-huit) years old, who is without employment and lives in Montecheroux. After we were informed of the death we drew up the present death certificate that the witness then signed after it was read to them."